Veterinary Drugs: Usage, Dosage, Species, and more.

Listed by Therapeutic Class, followed by Alphabetical listing and description.

The information contained in this site is intended as a reference for clinical investigators, and animal husbandry and veterinary staff. Drug information and dosages are derived from a variety of sources and do not necessarily guarantee safety or efficacy. Typographical errors are possible. Due to this, or other circumstances beyond our control, any medications administered or procedures performed on animals should only be performed by or under order of a qualified, licensed veterinarian.

Drugs Listed By Therapeutic Class

Autonomic Drugs
Cardiac Drugs
Muscle Relaxants
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatories







See Also: Antibiotic Doses

Autonomic Drugs

Cardiac Drugs


Gastrointestinal Agents


Muscle Relaxants


See also Anesthetic Drugs- Narcotics

Non-steroidal Antiinflammatories/Analgesics

See also "Other Analgesics"




Dosages For Selected Drugs Alphabetical Listing


Drug dosages listed are compiled and averaged from numerous sources (see references for more complete information.) Drugs that are not commonly used may be referenced directly. Drugs and doses listed are those that were encountered during the literature search. Omission of a species dose does not imply that the drug can not be used in that species.

Please note that animal welfare regulations prohibit the use of expired drugs on research animals, except if the animal is anesthetized for a terminal study.  The anesthesia drugs may not be expired under any circumstances.

Some comments on drug combinations. Many drugs, especially anesthetics and sedatives are mixed in the syringe to achieve better effect than either drug alone. In general, the doses used are the same as either drug used individually. Where there is a range of doses, the lower end of the range is better when used in combination, as drug effects and side effects may be additive or synergistic. Some frequently used combinations are listed here:

Many drugs with TID dosage rates are used BID (especially antibiotics.) To calculate a BID dose, multiply the TID dose by three to arrive at a daily dose. Divide by two for the BID dose. This method may be used to arrive at any dosage interval including constant infusion rates. Bear in mind that the pharmacokinetics can vary greatly with dosing interval and the drug may be considerably less effective when this is changed. It might be useful to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug to ascertain if this will be a problem.

Species Code: Can=canine, Fel=feline, Bov=bovine, Ov=ovine, Cap=caprine, Por=porcine, Rod=rodents (individual species listed by name), Rab=rabbit, NHP=nonhuman primate, Av=avian, Rep=reptiles (species listed by name,) Am=amphibians (species listed by name,) Fish=obvious (species listed by name.)

Other Codes: CNS=central nervous system, NSAID=non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, IV=intravenous, IM=intramuscular, SQ=subcutaneous, IP=intraperitoneal, PO=orally, SID=once daily, BID=twice daily, TID=3 times daily, QID=4 times daily, Qxh or Qxd=once every x hours or days. C-II to V=DEA schedule classification. =Drugs stocked by RAR. t=teaspoon, gal=gallon, IACUC=Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

Acepromazine: can, fel, ov, bov, cap, rab- 0.05-0.2 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ or 0.5-2 mg/kg PO. Por-0.2-1.1 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ. Rod-1-2 mg/kg IM.
Phenothiazine tranquilizer. Can be hypotensive in high doses. Lowers CNS seizure threshold. Can be used to aid in ear bleeds in rabbits.

Acetaminophen: can, NHP-5-15 mg/kg PO BID to TID. rod, rab-100-300 mg/kg Q4hr, or 1-2 mg/ml drinking water (15-30 ml 32 mg/ml pediatric elixir/500 ml bottle.)
NSAID with minimal anti-platelet activity. Toxic in cats. Drinking water route has not been demonstrated to be efficacious.

Alpha Chloralose/Chloral Hydrate: C-IV. Hypnotic/sedative with minimal analgesic effects. See review article (Silverman, J, and Muir, W., 1993, LAS 43(3): 210-216.) for doses and use.

Amikacin: can, fel-5-8 mg/kg SQ, IM, IV BID-TID, 10 mg/kg IV, IM SID; up to 10 mg/kg BID in rodents. Rep-25 mg/kg IM Q3d. Av-20 mg/kg IM BID.
Aminoglycoside antibiotic. Wide gram-negative spectrum of activity. Nephrotoxic. Concurrent IP fluid administration recommended in reptiles, esp. snakes.

Aminophyline: can-9-11 mg/kg PO, IM, IV TID-QID, fel-4 mg/kg PO BID, NHP-25-100 mg/animal PO BID, rat-3-100 mg/kg PO, IV, BID-TID, rep-2-4 mg/kg IM SID.
Bronchodilator, spasmolytic, may be useful with pulmonary edema.

Amitraz (Mitaban): Monoamine oxidase inhibitor used for demodectic or sarcoptic mange in canids. Label directions are to mix one 10.6 ml bottle per 2 gallons of water. Apply as dip every two weeks. Recent recommendations by Dermatology service at University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine are to mix one 10.6 ml bottle per 1 gallon of water and dip weekly for generalized demodecosis in adult dogs. Success rates for treatment are reported to be in 90% compared to 20% for label treatment.

Amoxicillin/Ampicillin: most species-11-22 mg/kg PO, IV, IM, SQ BID-TID, rep-6 mg/kg IM, SQ, SID-BID, av (passerines and doves)-150-200 mg/kg PO, IM, SQ, BID.
Beta lactam (penicillin related) antibiotic with increased gram-positive and limited gram-negative spectrum.

Amoxicillin/Clavulinic Acid: can, fel-14 mg/kg PO BID-TID.
Potentiated beta lactam antibiotic with broad spectrum of activity, including anaerobes. Excellent tissue penetration. Probably safe in most species. Human equivalent is Augmentin.

Amphotericin B: can, fel, NHP- 0.15-1.5 mg/kg IV SID-Q2d.
Antifungal agent for treatment of systemic fungal infections. Nephrotoxic. Recommend renal monitoring and consider concurrent IV fluid therapy.

Amprolium: bov-5-10 mg/kg PO SID or 8-16 oz of 9.6% soln/100 gal water, ov-50 mg/kg PO SID for 3 weeks, por-100 mg/kg PO SID, av-in water at 0.012-0.025%.
Coccidiostat used in numerous species including dogs. Usually added to water or food for herd or flock treatment.

Aspirin: can, por-10-25 mg/kg PO BID-TID, fel-10 mg/kg PO Q2d, bov, ov, cap, 100 mg/kg PO BID, rab, rod-100-400 mg/kg PO
NSAID with anti-platelet activity and potential for causing gastrointestinal ulceration.

Atapimazole (Antisedan): can- 0.25 mg/kg IM, 0.2 mg/kg IV
Reversal agent for alpha 2 agonist sedatives (xylazine and medetomidine). Highly recommended after combination anaesthesia to reduce recovery time.

Atropine: can, fel, rep-0.02-0.04 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ for pre-anesthetic, 0.2-2 mg/kg IV, IM for organophosphate toxicity. Bov, ov, cap, NHP-0.04-0.07 mg/kg IM, IV for pre-anesthetic. Rod, av-0.05-3 mg/kg SQ, IM for pre-anesthetic, up to 10 mg/kg SQ for organophosphate toxicity. Fish-0.1 mg/kg IP, IM for organophosphate toxicity.
Parasympatholytic often used as pre-anesthetic to decrease respiratory secretions and prevent bradycardia. Rabbits may have high atropinase activity and high doses are required for efficacy. Cecal atony reported in hamsters.

Azaperone (Stresnil): por- 2.2 mg/kg IM, rod-25-100 mg/kg IM.
Butyrophenone neuroleptic. Provides sedation up to 1 hour. No analgesic properties. Used in combination with ketamine in rodents. (LAS 38:3, p. 297.)

Benzalkonium Chloride (UMQ, DMQ): fish-use 1-2 mg/l water as a 1 hour dip daily for surface bacterial infections. Wound cleaner- a concentration of up to 1:2500 may be used in mammals.
Quaternary ammonium disinfectant used for surfaces and instruments.

Benzocaine: fish-35-50 mg/l in salmonids, 100-200 mg/l for other species.
Anesthetic agent used in fish and amphibians. General procedure is to place fish in solution until it loses equilibrium (floats belly up.) Recover in fresh water.

Bethanechol: can-2.5-10 mg/kg SQ or 5-25 mg/kg PO TID.
Cholinergic agent used to stimulate bladder contraction in cases of bladder atonia.

Beuthanasia: all species-1 ml/5-10 kg.
C-III . Euthanasia agent featuring pentobarbital as the active drug.

Bromosulfopthalein: can, fel-5 mg/kg IV, bov-2.2 mg/kg IV.
Agent administered for hepatic function test. A pre-test blood sample is taken, the BSP is given and in small animals a 30 minute post sample is taken. In cows a 5-10 minute post sample is taken and another 4 minutes after the first. Currently, in small animals, post-prandial serum bile acids are the preferred liver function test.

Buprenorphine: ov, cap, por, can, fel, NHP,-0.005 -0.02 mg/kg SQ BID-TID, 0.1 mg/kg PO BID-TID, rod, rab-0.05 mg/kg SQ BID, 0.5 mg/kg PO (in Jello) or 0.01-0.02 mg/ml drinking water.
C-V Narcotic agonist/antagonist providing long acting analgesia. Wide dose range listed in the literature.  Doses up  to 0.1 mg/kg parenterally have been published for swine.  Unpublished data indicates that the lower doses are equally effective.  There is increasing evidence that this drug may cause enough  respiratory depresssion, that when combined with anesthesia may be fatal.  To minimize this risk, it is recommended to either give the drug at the time of anesthetic induction and decrease the anesthetic dose (decrease by 10-25% initially until a new effective dose can be established), or to wait until the animal is completely recovered from anesthesia to administer the drug.

Buprenorphine Jello mixture
Drug amount
Volume water
Cube Volume
Buprenorphine (Buprenex)
1 ml vial (0.3 mg)
15 ml
1 ml
Buprenorphine (Buprenex)
1 ml vial (0.3 mg)
3 ml
4 ml

Butorphanol: can, fel, bov, NHP, rab, por -0.05-0.4 mg/kg IV, SQ, IM, rod-0.1-2 mg/kg SQ Q4h.
Narcotic agonist/antagonist for shorter acting analgesia, mild sedation in anesthetic combinations. Can be given orally to canines as antitussive at 10x dose listed above.

Calcium: all species-0.05-0.1 ml/kg IV for cardiac resuscitation. can-0.5-1.5 ml/kg IV 10% Ca gluconate for post-parturient hypocalcemia. Bov-250-1000 ml IV, por-50-100 ml IV, ov 25-50 ml IV of 23 % calcium solutions for hypocalcemia. Administer slowly and monitor for bradycardia.

Captopril: can, fel-0.5-2 mg/kg PO TID.
Mixed vasodilator useful in congestive heart failure. Can cause severe hypotension.

Carprofen (Rimadyl): can- 0.5 mg/kg PO BID, Rod- 5-10 mg/kg PO at least once post-operatively. (Click here for a Jello dose).
Iboprofen class NSAID with a wide safety margin in dogs. Limited potential for GI ulceration, hepato or nephrotoxicity compared to other NSAIDs. A single dose after surgery, or dosing every 3 hours for 4 treatments have been shown to have comparable beneficial effects on post-surgical recovery.

Carprofen Jello mixture
Drug amount
Volume water
Cube Volume
Carprofen (Rimadyl)
25 mg tablet
100 ml
1 ml
Carprofen (Rimadyl)
25 mg tablet
12 ml
4 ml

Cephalosporins: can, fel, NHP, rod-11-22 mg/kg PO or parenterally TID (Q3d in rep,) for 1st generation drugs, i.e. cephadroxil, cefazolin, cephalothin, cephalexin. 3rd generation drugs: can-30-50 mg/kg IV QID, av-up to 80 mg/kg BID for cefotaxime, can, ov, por- 3-5 mg/kg IM, SQ, IV SID for ceftiofur, bov-1.1 mg/kg IM SID for ceftiofur.
Synthetic beta lactam antimicrobials with good gram-positive and limited gram-negative spectrum. 3rd generation drugs have expanded gram-negative spectrum. May be contraindicated in renal disease due to renal excretion.

Chloramphenicol: can, rod, NHP, Fish-45-80 mg/kg PO, IM, IV TID, fel-12-30 mg/kg IM, IV, PO BID, av-80-100 mg/kg IM, SQ BID-TID, rep-10-15 IM, SQ BID or 40 mg/kg IM SID. In water solutions-rod-100 mg/200 ml water, fish-500-1000 mg/10 gal water.
Broad spectrum antibiotic with high lipid solubility, effective against anaerobes. Can cause reversible suppression of bone marrow activity in humans. Recommend avoiding skin contact.

Chlorhexidine (Nolvasan): antiseptic/disinfectant with wide spectrum of activity. Numerous uses include: surgical scrub and prep solutions, 0.5% solution used as 2x weekly dip for treatment of dermatophytosis, 0.05%-0.5% solution used as wound cleaner, 1-2 mg/l water as a 1 hour dip solution for surface infections in fish. Solutions should be made with deionized or distilled water as it will form complexes with other ions. Do not use in or near eye as it can damage the cornea.

Chlorpheniramine: can, fel-2-8 mg PO BID-TID, NHP-0.5 mg/kg PO divided BID, rod-1 mg/kg, IP, IM, PO.

Chlorpromazine: can-0.05-0.5 mg/kg IV, SQ TID-QID, 0.8-2.2 mg/kg PO BID-TID, rod, rab-3-35 mg/kg IV or IM.
Phenothiazine antiemetic and mild tranquilizer.

Cimetidine: fel-2.5-5 mg/kg PO, IV, IM TID-QID, rats-25-50 mg/kg IP, PO, 0.25 mg/kg SQ, all other monogastrics-5-10 mg/kg PO, IV, IM TID-QID.
Histamine (H2) antagonist used to prevent or treat gastrointestinal ulceration.

Ciprofloxacin: can-2.5-7.5 mg/kg PO BID.
Fluoroquinolone antibiotic. May cause cartilage developmental defects in dogs less than 8 months. Broad spectrum of activity.

Clindamycin (Antirobe): can, fel-5-10 mg/kg PO BID. For Toxoplasmosis 25-50 mg/kg divided TID. 10-40 mg/kg IM, IV BID for sepsis.
Lincosamide antibiotic with gram-positive and anaerobic spectrum. Also used to treat toxoplasmosis.

Dexamethasone: all species-shock-5mg/kg IV bolus, CNS trauma-2-3 mg/kg IV, then taper to 1 mg/kg SQ TID-QID, immunosuppression-0.3-0.6 mg/kg PO, IM, SQ SID, antiinflammatory-0.07-0.2 mg/kg PO, IM, SQ SID.
Corticosteroid. Fairly slow onset of action (up to 6 hours) with 24 hour duration of action.

Dextromethorphan: all mammals-1-2 mg/kg PO Q4h.
Mild cough suppressant.

Diazepam: all species-0.25-0.5 mg/kg IV, IM, IP, up to 2.5-5 mg/kg in rab, rod. C-IV . Benzodiazapene anti-seizure, anti-anxiety drug, mild sedative used IV in status epilepticus or as a pre-anesthetic, especially with ketamine. (1:1 volumetric mixture with ketamine given at 1cc/10 kg is excellent induction mixture or for short procedures.) Intramusculature absorption is described as variable, but may work well clinically.

Dichlorvos (Task) all species- 10-15 mg/kg PO SID for 1-3 days. Rod-500 mg/kg of food for 1-3 days.
Organophosphate anthelminthic with good activity against nematodes. Hookworm infections require 3 consecutive days of treatment. High potential for toxicity in puppies and cats.

Diethylcarbamazine: can-6-10 mg/kg PO SID as heartworm prophylaxis.

Digoxin: can-0.01-0.02 mg/kg PO divided BID, fel-0.005-0.008 mg/kg divided BID.
Antiarrythmia drug used in atrial fibrillation, + inotrope, - chronotrope. Traditionally used in congestive heart failure, though + inotropic effects may accelerate myocardial degeneration. Diuretics are an alternative for CHF. For emergency situations consult cardiac references (Merck Manual has excellent section) for IV digitalization or use oubain.

Dinoprost (Lutalyse): can, fel-0.025-0.25 mg/kg IM SID for pyometra, or after day 40 for luteolysis and abortion. Bov, ov, por-10-25 mg IM for luteolysis.
Prostaglandin F2 alpha analog. Can have vomiting, trembling as side-effects in small animals. Well absorbed after cutaneous contact and should be used with caution by pregnant women.

Diphenhydramine: can, fel-4 mg/kg PO TID, 0.5 mg/kg IV, IM BID.

Dipyrone: can-25 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ TID, bov, por-50 mg/kg, IV, IM, SQ.
NSAID. Can be hepatotoxic/nephrotoxic. May cause hypothermia in combination with phenothiazines.

DMSO: all species-0.5-1g/kg slowly IV for CNS trauma.
Universal solvent. Can be used as a topical antiinflammatory, as an intramammary infusion with antibiotics for coliform mastitis. Will increase systemic absorption of topical drugs. Wear gloves while using.

Doxapram: can, fel, NHP-1-5 mg/kg IV or IP in fish. Bov, por-5-10 mg/kg IV.
CNS respiratory stimulant useful for anesthetic emergencies, neonatal resuscitation.

Doxycycline: can, fel-5-10 mg/kg PO or parenterally BID, av-50 mg/kg PO or parenterally BID.
Lipid soluble tetracycline antibiotic with superior tissue penetration.

Droperidol/Fentanyl (Innovar): can, NHP, rat-0.1-0.14 ml/kg IM or 0.04-0.09 ml/kg IV, mice-0.02-0.03 ml/kg IM, rab-0.22 ml/kg IM, guinea pig-0.6-ml/kg IM.
C-II. Neuroleptanalgesia combination or butyrophenone sedative and narcotic. May cause excitement, especially in cats. Reported to cause tissue necrosis and self-mutilation when given IM in guinea pigs.

Enrofloxacin (Baytril): can, fel-2.5-5 mg/kg PO, IM, SQ, BID, rod, 0.36 ml injection/250 ml drinking water, av-15 mg/kg IM BID.
Fluoroquinolone antibiotic. May cause cartilage abnormalities in dogs less than 8 months old. Broad spectrum of activity. Recent publications have suggested that 5 mg/kg PO SID in dogs for sensitive E. coli infections, and 25 mg/kg PO SID in dogs and mice for sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections are effective.

Epinephrine: all species-0.1 mg/kg IV or IM for cardiac resuscitation, 0.2 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ for bronchoconstriction (anaphylaxis.)
Alpha and beta adrenergic agent.

Erythromycin: bov, por-2.5 mg/kg IM SID, can, fel-10 mg/kg PO TID, fish-100 mg/kg PO SID or 500-1000mg/10 gal water.
Macrolide antibiotic with relatively narrow gram-positive spectrum.

Esiprantel (Cestex): can-5 mg/kg PO, fel-2.5 mg/kg PO.
Newer anthelminthic with good activity against common cestodes.

Estradiol cypionate: ov, por-0.5-1 mg IM, bov-3-10 mg IM, can, fel-0.04 mg/kg IM.
Estrogen analog. Used to treat post-partum metritis in cattle, and to prevent embryo implantation in dogs and cats if given within 72 hours of mating. The latter use is associated with a high incidence of subsequent pyometra.

Ether: fish-10-15 ml/l water for anesthesia. Used as an inhalant anesthetic in other species, especially in jar type set-ups. Extremely flammable. Must be used under fume hood.

Febantel: can, fel-10 mg/kg PO.
Anthelminthic with activity against all nematodes. Available in combination with praziquantel.

Fenbendazole: can, fel-50 mg/kg PO SID x 3d, bov-5mg/kg PO, av-20 mg/kg PO SID x 3d.
Anthelminthic with activity against all nematodes and Taenia cestodes.

Flucytosine: can, fel-25-35 mg/kg PO TID-QID.
Antifungal agent often used in combination with others for treatment of cryptococcosis or candidiasis.

Fludrocortisone: can-0.1-0.3 mg/kg PO SID.
Mineralocorticoid/glucocorticoid used for treatment of adrenal insufficiency.

Flunixin meglumine (Banamine): can, fel, bov-1.1 mg/kg IV, IM, PO SID.
Highly effective NSAID. Potential for hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal ulceration. May dilute with Vit. B12 inj. to reduce pain on IM or SQ injection.

Formaldehyde (37%): fish-1ml/10 gal water (long term) or 0.4-0.5 ml/l for 1 hour.
Normally used as a tissue preservative, this makes an excellent treatment for surface bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in fish.

Furosemide (Lasix): can, fel, NHP, fish-0.5-2 mg/kg PO, IM, IV (up to 8 mg/kg in emergencies.)
Diuretic frequently used for pulmonary edema, ascites, congestive heart failure. Dose is probably safe in most species.

Gallamine: rat-0.01 IV, rab-0.75-4 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ, fel-k5 mg/kg IV, can-0.25-5 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ.
Muscle relaxant. Use requires mechanical ventilation.

Gentamicin: mammals-2-3 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ QID-BID, 6 mg/kg SID, av-5-10 mg/kg IM, SQ, rep-2.5 mg/kg IM Q3d.
Aminoglycoside with broad spectrum of activity, especially gram-negative . Nephrotoxic. ototoxic. Concurrent IP fluid administration recommended in reptiles.

Glycopyrrolate: can, fel-0.011 mg/kg IM.
Anticholinergic frequently used as a pre-anesthetic. Longer duration of activity than atropine (up to 2-3 hours.)

Gonadorelin: bov-0.1mg/IM, IV.
Synthetic GNRH potentially useful in other species.

Griseofulvin: bov, ov, cap-10-20 mg/kg PO SID, can, fel, NHP-50 mg/kg PO divided BID, rab-25 mg/kg PO SID, guinea pigs-75 mg/kg PO SID.
Antifungal agent used primarily for dermatophytosis. Extended treatment times required. May cause leukopenias in cats.

Guaifenesin (glycerol guaiacolate): large and companion animals-100 mg/kg IV.
Used as a muscle relaxant during anesthetic induction.

Halothane: fish-40 mg/l water. Inhalant anesthetic in all mammals. High vapor pressure precludes direct use in ether jar. Procedure in fish is to place fish in solution until it turns belly-up. Recover in fresh water. Use in a vaporizer for terrestrial animals. Should only be handled in fume hood. If used in bell jar, use as small of diameter jar as possible and ensure a tight fitting lid. Keep exposure times extremely brief, as death can occur rapidly.

Heparin: can, fel-10-40 IU/kg SQ TID for treatment of thromboembolic disease. 100-150 IU/kg SQ QID-TID for DIC.
Anticoagulant. Mix 1:100 with saline for catheter flush (2.5 ml of 10,000 IU/ml heparin/250 ml bottle saline.)

Hydrocodone: can-2.5-10 mg PO BID-QID.
C-II. Opiate antitussive. Comes in combination with acetominophen (C-III.)

Hypochlorite (bleach): disinfectant supplied as 5% hypochlorite solution (bleach,) as 0.05 % solution can be excellent wound cleaner. Often used at 1.5 ml bleach/2 gal water in rodents for control of enteric infections.

Ibuprofen: can-200 mg/25 kg PO BID.
Ibuprofen class of NSAIDS. Potent antiinflammatory/antipyretic activity. Reports of hepatotoxicity and GI ulceration in dogs. Not recommended in cats.

Insulin: can, fel-0.5-1 IU/kg SQ. Adjust dose according to blood glucose level.
For treatment of hyperglycemia or diabetes.

Iron dextran: mammals-10 mg/kg IM once.
Potential for hemosiderosis if given too frequently. Due to mechanics of iron metabolism, oral supplementation is preferable.

Isoflurane: Inhalant anesthetic. High vapor pressure precludes use in an ether jar. Can be used for box induction if system has calibrated vaporizer. Has been used in bell jars following brief exposure. Of all inhalants, this is the least metabolized and is preferable for birds and high risk patients. Extremely rapid induction and recovery times. Should only be handled in fume hood. If used in bell jar, use as small of diameter jar as possible and ensure a tight fitting lid. Keep exposure times extremely brief, as death can occur rapidly.

Isonazid: NHP-5 mg/kg PO divided BID.
Used for mycobacterial infections, long term therapy. Supplement 3-5 mg/kg pyridoxine.

Ivermectin: mammals and reptiles-0.2 mg/kg SQ or PO, up to 0.4 mg/kg in rodents. 0.006 mg/kg PO monthly as heartworm preventative. Frogs-2 mg/kg applied cutaneously (JAVMA, 1992, 200:4, p. 537.)
Anthelminthic effective against nematodes; miticide (except Demodex.) Will kill heartworm larvae up to 45-60 days old. Possibly toxic in turtles.

Ketamine: NHP, can, fel, ov, por, cap, ferrets, av-10-30 mg/kg IV, IM (5mg/kg with diazepam 0.25 mg/kg IV is excellent induction combination.) Rab, rod-40-90 mg/kg IV, IM, snakes-20-100 mg/kg IM (smaller to larger)
 CIII. Cyclohexamine dissociative anesthetic. Respiratory depression can become significant at higher doses. Frequently used in combination with other drugs such as acepromazine, xylazine, diazepam.

Ketoconazole: can, fel-5-10 mg/kg PO BID-TID, up to 40 mg/kg divided BID-TID for CNS infections. Rep-25-50 mg/kg PO SID.
Antifungal agent. Usually used for systemic mycoses, especially in combination with amphotericin B.

Ketoprofen: bov, can-2.2 mg/kg IV, IM.
Ibuprofen class NSAID.

Ketorolac (Toradol)- can, goat- 0.3-0.7 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ, PO TID

Potent analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic. Has potential for hepato- and nephrotoxicity, less potential for GI ulceration than other NSAIDs, affects platelet function/bleeding time.

Levamisole: can, fel, NHP-5-10 mg/kg PO, SQ, bov, ov, por-5-8 mg/kg PO, SQ, av-10-30 mg/kg PO, SQ, Xenopus- 12 mg/L water with a minimum of 50 mg/frog,  fish-100 mg/25 g food.
Anthelminthic effective against nematodes.

Levothyroxine: can-0.02-0.04 mg/kg SID or divided BID.
Thyroxine (T4) supplement.

Lidocaine: can-3-4 mg/kg IV, fel-0.5 mg/kg IV, for ventricular arrythmias. For epidural block-1cc 2% soln./5kg for perineal block, 1cc/3kg for abdominal anesthesia, 5cc for perineal anesthesia in cow. Most frequently used as local anesthetic.

Lincomycin: can, fel, por-22 mg/kg PO BID or 15 mg/kg TID, 5 mg/kg IM, IV BID, rep-6 mg/kg IM BID-SID.
Lincosamide antibiotic with gram-positive spectrum and activity against Mycoplasma.

Mebendazole: NHP-3-5 mg/kg PO, mice-40 mg/kg PO.
Anhelminthic with activity against nematodes and cestodes including Hymenolepis, Taenia. and Echinococcus.

Medetomidine (Domitor): can- 0.04 mg/kg IV, 0.05 mg/kg IM; por, rab-0.2 mg/kg IM (In Animal Pain, 1991. O. Vanio, ed Churchill Livingstone,NY, . pp. 213-219.)
Alpha 2 adrenergic agonist that provides moderate analgesia and sedation. Useful in combination with dissociative or other anesthetics. Purported to have less cardiopulmonary depression than xylazine.

Meperidine (Demerol): can-5-11 mg/kg IM, fel, guinea pig-2-4 mg/kg IM, rats, mice-20-60 mg/kg IM.
C-II. Narcotic analgesic.

Methimazole (Tapazole): fel-15 mg/animal divided SID-TID.
Antithyroid drug used in feline hyperthyroidism.

Methionine, D-L: fel, can-200-1000 mg/animal PO TID.
Urinary acidifier for treatment of urolithiasis.

Methocarbamol: can, fel-40-220 mg/kg IV.
CNS depressant and muscle relaxant.

Methohexitol (Brevital): NHP-4.5 mg/kg IV, fel-6 mg/kg IV, por-8 mg/kg IV, can-10 mg/kg IV, rod-25-50 mg/kg IV, 100 mg/kg IP.
C-IV. Ultra-short acting barbiturate used for anesthetic induction.

Methoxyflurane: inhalant anesthetic used in all species. Low vapor pressure makes this appropriate for use in an ether jar as well as a conventional vaporizer. Significant metabolism occurs making this less desireable for animals with compromised renal or hepatic function. Slow induction and recovery times compared to halothane or isoflurane.

Methylprednisolone: all species-5-30 mg/kg IV for shock, can, fel-1 mg/kg IM of acetate (Depo) preparation for immunosuppression, antiinflammatory.

Metaclopramide (Reglan): can, fel, rab-0.2-0.5 mg/kg PO, SQ TID-QID.
Antiemetic and upper GI motility stimulant. Especially useful for functional pyloric outflow problems in rabbits and dogs.

Metronidazole (Flagyl): can, fel, NHP, av, fish-50-60 mg/kg PO SID or divided BID x 5d. Fish-250 mg/10 gal water, 10 mg/g food, rep-125-275 mg/kg PO SID-BID. Human dose-15 mg/kg QID (30 mg/kg BID) IV for sepsis.
Anti-protozoan drug used for Giardia, Trichomonas, amebiasis, and anaerobic bacterial infections.

Midazolam: can-0.5 mg/kg IM, por-0.1-1 mg/kg IM, 0.2 mg/kg intranasal.
C-IV. Benzodiazapene antiseizure drug, sedative. Water soluble version of diazepam with good absorption after intramuscular injection.

Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor): can-0.5-1 mg/kg PO.
Macrolide anthelminthic used as monthly heartworm preventative and for treatment of nematodes. Will kill heartworm larvae up to 90 days old.

Minocycline: av-5-10 mg/kg PO TID, fish-250 mg/100 g food or 250-500 mg/10 gal water.
Lipid soluble tetracycline with greater activity against Staph. aureus. Used for pododermatitis in birds and mycobacterial infections in fish.

Misoprostol: can-0.1 mg/kg PO TID (Murtaugh, R.J., et. al,. Use of a prostaglandin E analog for the prevention of GI ulceration in canines on NSAIDs, JAVMA, 1993, 202:2, 251-256.)

Morphine: NHP, can-0.25-2 mg/kg IM. SQ QID, fel-0.1 mg/kg IM, SQ, QID, rod, rab-5 mg/kg SQ Q2-4h.
C-II. Narcotic analgesic. May cause hyperexcitability in cats.

Nalbuphine (Nubain): can-0.2 mg/kg IV, SQ up to 0.75-3 mg/kg Q4h.
Narcotic agonist/antagonist for analgesia or reversal of oxymorphone. Though frequently used with no problems, severe respiratory and CNS depression has been reported in NHPs.

Naloxone (Narcan): all species-0.015-0.04 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ (1 ml/40 lb) up to 2 mg/kg in rodents.
Narcotic antagonist used as reversal agent. Drug may drop below therapeutic levels before the narcotic does, necessitating re-dosing.

Neomycin: can-20 mg/kg PO QID, ruminant-7-12 mg/kg PO SID, guinea pig-500 mg/l drinking water.
Broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic best used as topical preparation only. Has been used to treat hepatic encephalopathy or to depopulate GI flora pre-operatively. Also used for enteritis. Use with caution because of potential problems with opportunistic overgrowth.

Nitroglycerin: can-1/4 " of 2% ointment applied cutaneously.
Central venodilator and cardiac pre-load reducer which can be used in congestive heart failure and in cardiac emergencies. Wear gloves while applying.

Orbifloxacin (Orbax): can- 2.5 mg/kg PO SID
Fluoroquinolone antibiotic. May cause cartilage abnormalities in dogs less than 8 months old. Broad spectrum of activity.

Ormetoprim/Sulfadimethoxine (Primor): can-15-30 mg/kg SID.
Long acting potentiated sulfonamide antimicrobial with broad spectrum of activity.

Oxymorphone: can-0.03-0.05 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ Q4-6h, fel-0.02-0.03 mg/kg IV, IM, SQ Q4-6h, NHP-0.15 mg/kg SQ QID in old world primates, new world species require 1/2 dose at same frequency.
C-II. Narcotic agonist used as analgesic and anesthetic pre-medication.

Oxytetracycline: can, fel-10-20 mg/kg PO TID, 7 mg/kg IV, IM BID, bov, ov, cap, por-5-10 mg/kg IV, IM SID or 20 mg/kg IM Q2d of long acting preparation (LA-200.) Rab-0.5-1 mg/ml drinking water, rod-400 mg (2 t powdered )/l drinking water, av-60-100 mg/kg IM SID-Q3d of long acting preparation, rep, fish-6-10 mg/kg IM SID. Fish-50-100 mg/l water for 1 hour dip SID.
Commonly available form of tetracycline antibiotic. Broad spectrum antibiotic with resistance being very common. Effective against mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and rickettsiae. Some argue that tetracyclines are poorly absorbed and distributed in the concentrations found in food or water mixes.

Oxytocin: can, fel-1-10 IU IM for milk let-down, 5-25 IU IM for uterine contraction. Bov, ov, por-5-20 IU IM, IV for milk let-down, 30-100 IU IM, IV for uterine contraction.

Pancrealipase (Viokase): can-1-1.5 t on food, fel-1/2-3/4 t on food.
Pancreatic enzyme supplement. Apply to moistened food 15-20 min prior to feeding.

Pancuronium: can, fel-0.05-0.1 mg/kg IV.
Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker requiring mechanical ventilation.

Penicillin G procaine, Penicillin/benzathine: mammals-20,000-40,000 IU/kg IM BID or Q2d for benzathine preparations. Rep-10,000 IU/kg IM Q1-3d for benzathine preparations.
Prototype penicillin antibiotic with narrow gram-positive and anaerobic spectrum of activity. Resistance is common. Benzathine preparation slows absorption from injection site, thus extending duration of activity. Some argue that absorption is so slow that therapeutic levels are never reached. Aqueous solutions for IV use and oral penicillin V are available.

Pentazocine (Talwin): can-1 mg/kg IM or 2-6 mg/kg PO Q3-4h, NHP-1.5-3 mg/kg IM. C-IV. Narcotic agonist/antagonist for use as analgesic.

Pentobarbital: can, fel-25-30 mg/kg IV, rab, rod-35-40 mg/kg IV, IP, may need to increase to 60 mg/kg in mice. Turtle-16-32 mg/kg IV, IP, alligator-77-88 mg/kg IM, snake-15-45 mg/kg IP, frog-60 mg/kg IP. C-II. Short acting barbiturate anesthetic (up to 1 hour after single dose in mammals.) Intubation is advisable due to respiratory depression.

Permethrin: Synthetic pyrethroid with increased resistance to photodegredation. Effective against fleas, mites (Myobia, Cheyletiella, not Scabies, Demodex.) Available as dip, spray, powder, cotton bedding additive. Used here in mice at 1 impregnated cottonball per mouse, plus one extra in each cage treated.

Phenobarbital: can, fel-2-5 mg/kg PO divided BID.
C-IV. Long acting barbiturate used to control seizures or as a tranquilizer.

Phenylbutazone: can, bov, ov, por-1-5 mg/kg PO, IV SID-BID.
NSAID with potent activity.

Piperazine: can, fel, NHP, rep-55-60 mg/kg PO (repeat in 2-3 weeks.) Rab-200 mg/kg PO, rod-3 mg/ml in drinking water for 3 weeks.
Anthelminthic primarily used for ascarid infections.

Potassium: can-0.5 mEq/kg/h IV maximum. Titrate according to electrolyte levels. 1-3 g/day PO.

Praziquantel (Droncit): can, fel-4-7 mg/kg PO, SQ (decreasing dose with larger relative weight.) Rat-25 mg/kg PO, SQ repeat in 10 d for Hymenolepis nana, av-30 mg/kg PO, fish-100-250 mg/10 gal water or 100 mg/25 g food PO.
Anthelminthic primarily indicated for cestodiasis, though also effective against trematodes and schistosomes in humans (doses up to 75 mg/kg divided TID.)

Prednisone/Prednisolone: can, fel-5-10 mg/kg IV for shock, 0.5-1 mg/kg IM, PO BID, tapered off to lowest effective dose for immunosuppression, antiinflammatory.
Corticosteroid with significant mineralocorticoid activity. Rapid onset of action with about 12 hours duration of effect.

Procainamide: can- 6-20 mg/kg IM Q4-6 h, or Q6-8 h PO.
Antiarrhythmic drug useful for ventricular tachycardia or ventricular premature complexes.

Propanolol: can, -0.02-0.15 mg/kg IV or 0.2-0.3 mg/kg PO TID, fel-2-15 mg PO TID.
Beta adrenergic blocker, - inotrope, - chronotrope used for supraventricular arrythmias.

Propofol: can-2-6 mg/kg IV to effect, rab-6-9 mg/kg IV.
Short acting hypnotic used alone or in combination for sedation or anesthesia. Respiratory depression with apnea is reported to be common with use. (JAVMA, 1993, 202:7, 1111, LAS, 42:5, 503. LAS 43:4, 324-7.)

Propylene glycol: ruminants-50-500 ml (ov-bov) PO SID-BID of 96% solution.
Used for treatment of ketosis in ruminants. Can also be used as a diluent for oral administration of non-water soluble drugs, i.e. ivermectin.

Protamine sulfate: can-1mg/100 IU heparin given, administer slowly IV.
Binds to heparin, can be used in cases of heparin overdose.

Pyrantel (Strongid-T): can, fel, other monogastrics-5-10 mg/kg PO, av-10-20 mg/kg PO.
Anthelminthic with activity against nematodes except whipworms.

Quinaldine sulfate: fish-20-65 mg/l water.
Fish anesthetic. Use buffered solution. Place fish in solution until they lose equilibrium. Recover in fresh water.

Ranitidine: can-0.5 mg/kg PO BID, rat-6-10 mg/kg PO BID. Histamine (H2) antagonist used to treat or prevent GI ulceration.

Rifampin: mammals-5-10 mg PO SID-BID.
Highly lipid soluble antibiotic used for long term therapy of abscesses, corynebacteria and mycobacteria.

Selenium: see Vit. E/selenium.

Sodium chloride: fish-1-3 g/l water long term or 25 g/l for 3-15 minutes. Used for treatment of surface parasites and long term to reduce stress in freshwater fish.

Stanozolol (Winstrol-V): can, fel-1-10 mg PO BID or IM Q1week. C-III. Anabolic steroid used for treatment of debilitation, anorexia and anemia.

Succinylcholine (Anectine): can-0.07-0.2 mg/kg IV, fel-0.06 mg/kg IV, rod, rab-0.25-0.45 mg/kg IV.
Depolarizing neuromuscular blocker. Requires mechanical ventilation with use.

Sucralfate: can-0.5-1 g PO TID-QID.
GI mucosa protectant for treating ulceration.

Sulfonamides: all species-sulfadimethoxine,50 mg/kg PO, then 25 mg/kg PO SID for 5-10 days as coccidiostat. Rod- 0.025-0.1 % sulfadimethoxine in drinking water or 1 mg/ml water sulfamethazine as coccidiostat. Can-15-55 mg/kg PO TID-QID sulfasalazine or 10-20 mg/kg PO BID-TID in fel for chronic diarrhea. Bov-40 mg/kg PO BID, 66-88 mg/kg IV BID sulfachlorpyridazine for susceptible (E. coli) infections.
Sulfonamides are synthetic antimicrobials. Though they have a broad spectrum of activity, resistance is very common. Currently, common uses are as coccidostatic agents, and for specific susceptible infections in large animals. Sulfasalazine seems to help in some cases of chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. This may be due to a local antiinflammatory effect of one of the metabolites or because of undiagnosed coccidial infections. Sulfonamides potentiated with trimethoprim or ormetoprim are very effective broad spectrum antimicrobials. Immune reactions resulting in pyrexia and depression or bone marrow suppression are occasionally reported and are thought to be more common in cats, Dobermans, German Sheperds and Rottweilers.

Taurine: fel-125 mg PO Q2d-BID.
Essential amino acid in cats. Deficiency may cause retinopathies and cardiomyopathy.

Tetracycline: can, fel, NHP-10-22 mg/kg PO TID, rab, rep-50-100 mg/kg PO divided BID, av-200 mg/kg PO BID, rod-5-50 mg/kg PO BID, 0.3-2 mg/ml (as high as 3-5 mg/ml reported) in drinking water, fish-500-1000 mg/10 gal water.
Broad spectrum antibiotic with resistance being very common. Effective against mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and rickettsiae. Some argue that tetracyclines are poorly absorbed and distributed in the concentrations found in food or water mixes.

Tiamulin: por, av-8.8 mg/kg PO daily in food or water (180 mg/l water)
Antibiotic used for gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and swine dysentery. Also reported effective in certain pig pneumonias.

Ticarcillin: can, por-40 mg/kg IM, IV BID.
Betalactamase resistant penicillin antibiotic with broad spectrum.

Thiabendazole: bov, ov, cap, rep-44-66 mg/kg PO, NHP-75-100 mg/kg PO, rod-100-200 mg/kg PO.
Anthelminthic primarily effective against nematodes.

Thiamylal/Thiopental: can, fel, NHP, ov, cap, rab-10-20 mg/kg IV to effect, rod, rep-25-50 mg/kg IV or IP, por-6-10 mg/kg IV.
C-III. Ultra-short acting barbiturate used for anesthetic inductions and short procedures.

Tiletamine/Zolazepam (Telazol): can-5-10 mg/kg IM, fel-6-16 mg/kg IM, NHP-2-6 mg/kg IM, ov-10-20 mg/kg IM, pigeon-10-50 mg/kg IM, ferret-12-22 mg/kg IM, hamster-10-50 mg/kg IM, gerbil-20-60 mg/kg IM, rat-20-80 mg/kg IM, rab-15 mg/kg IM, chinchilla, 20-40 mg/kg IM, turtle-3.5-14 mg/kg IM, snakes-15-30 mg/kg IM (or higher to 210 mg/kg IM in rattlesnakes.)
C-III. Combination of cyclohexamine dissociative anesthetic with benzodiazapene tranquilizer. Compared to ketamine/xylazine combinations generally shows less cardiovascular depression. Is a drug of choice in wildlife and zoo medicine. May see rough recoveries in dogs. Most reports indicate inadequate analgesia in rodents. Reports of nephrotoxicity in rabbits.

Telazol/Xylazine: Reconstitute powdered Telazol with 5 ml of 20 mg/ml xylazine instead of saline. Administer at 0.05-0.1 ml/kg IV or IM in large animals and up to 0.4 ml/kg IM in rodents. Do not use Telazol in rabbits or mice. More cardiac and respiratory depression will be seen with this mixture than with Telazol alone. Reversal with yohimbine 0.1-0.15 mg/kg (IM or IV) or atapimazole at 0.25 (IM) or 0.2 (IV) mg/kg is recommended to shorten recovery times

Tilmicosin: bov-10 mg/kg IM SID.
Macrolide antibiotic specifically developed for bovine respiratory disease.

Triamcinolone: can, fel-0.1-0.2 mg/kg PO, IM, SQ SID.
Corticosteroid with 24-72 hour duration of action.

Tribromoethanol/Trichloroethylene: rod, rab-80-120 mg/kg IV, 225-240 mg/kg IP.
Anesthetic used in rodents. IP administration is thought to cause fibrous adhesions and mortality. This is questioned (Papaioannou, V., Fox, J. 1993. LAS, 43:2, 189-192.) and dark refrigerated conditions are recommended for storage to prevent degradation.

Tricaine: fish-20-100 mg/l of water, am-0.1-0.5% solution applied cutaneously to effect, snake-178-272 mg/kg IP, alligator-40-99 mg/kg IM.
Anesthetic used in reptiles, amphibians, fish.

Trimethoprim/sulfonamide: mammals-15-30 mg/kg PO, IV, SQ BID (or SID-Q2d in rep.) Rod-23 ml (~1 g) ped. elixer/l drinking water. Fish-50 mg/kg PO SID, 250-500 mg/10 gal water.
Potentiated sulfonamide antibiotic with broad spectrum of activity. Used for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii infections in immunodeficient rodents.

Tubocurarine: can, fel-up to 0.5 mg/kg IM, rod-0.35-0.75 mg/kg IV, rab-0.1 mg/kg IV.
Neuromuscular blocker. Requires mechanical ventilation.

Tylosin: can, fel-5-10 mg/kg PO BID (up to 40 mg/kg PO BID for chronic colitis.) Por, rod-8.8 mg/kg IM BID or 66 mg/l drinking water to suppress Mycoplasma, bov-10-17 mg/kg IM SID, rep-25 mg/kg IM, PO SID.
Macrolide antibiotic with activity against gram-positive organisms and mycoplasmas.

Vitamin A & D: mammals-0.25-2 ml injectable soln. depending on size. Rep-1000-50,000 IU Vit A IM.

Vitamin B complex: all species: 0.5-2 ml IM, SQ, IV SID up to 10 ml in large animals.

Vitamin C: NHP-4mg/kg PO daily, guinea pig-50 mg/day or 200 mg/l drinking water. Can, fel-30 mg/kg SQ for methemoglobinemia.

Vitamin D: can, fel-0.007-0.01 mg/kg PO SID usually with calcium supplement. NHP-2000 IU/kg daily in diet.

Vitamin E/selenium: bov, ov, por-0.05 mg/kg Se, 0.68 IU/kg Vit E IM. Rep-50-100 mg/kg IM Vit. E.
Soil selenium deficiencies occur in numerous areas of the country creating deficiencies in animals fed forage diets. Caution should be taken with oral or injectable supplementation as there is a very narrow therapeutic range for selenium.

Vitamin K (Phytonadione): all mammals-1-5 mg/kg PO, SQ divided BID-TID for coumadin or warfarin toxicities.

Xylazine: can-0.6-2 mg/kg IM, IV, por-2-4 mg/kg IM, rab, guinea pigs-3-5 mg/kg IM, other rodents-4-8 mg/kg IM, budgies-10 mg/kg IM, bov-0.05-0.3 mg/kg IM, IV, ov, cap-0.01-0.22 mg/kg IV, IV. frog- 10 mg/kg IP, SQ
Alpha 2 adrenergic agonist causing sedation, analgesia and significant hypotension. May cause 2nd degree heart block and bradycardia in dogs and other species. Frequently causes emesis in dogs. It can be administered to frogs for very effective analgesia of up to 24 hours duration.

Yohimbine: mammals-0.1-0.15 mg/kg IV, budgies-0.1-0.4 mg/kg IM. Alpha 2 adrenergic reversal agent.

Zolazepam: see Tiletamine/zolazepam